RESÚMENES

PANEL DE PONENTES A

Sala Fernando Pessoa
Presidente: António Teixeira, Universidade Aberta – UAb, PT

MOOCs: the unintended consequences for learning and teaching
Alan Tait, Emeritus Professor of Distance Education and Development, Open University, UK
Why OER are essential for MOOCs
Rory McGreal, UNESCO/CoL/ICDE Chair in OER and Director of TEKRI, Athabasca University, CA
The free sharing of  open educational resources  (OER) can be seen as essential for promoting the creation of content for MOOCs or in any other learning context. OER can be effective in reducing  the knowledge divide that separates and partitions societies. Educators worldwide continue to face significant challenges related to providing increased access to high quality learning, while containing or reducing costs. New developments in online learning, especially with MOOCs, highlight the shortcomings and challenges for the traditional education community, as well as those of more flexible providers, such as open universities. MOOCs have the potential to increase access and flexibility in education by rendering it ubiquitous. More recently MOOC developers are being forced to focus on the effects of digital locks (Technological Protection Measures) and restrictive licenses that come with commercial online content and should turn to OER in order to take full advantage of the affordances  available for online learning.

PANEL DE PONENTES B

Sala Fernando Pessoa
Presidente: Christian Gütl, TU Graz, AT

MOOCs: At the Crossroads of Open Education, Lifelong Learning, and Blended Teaching
Carlos Delgado Kloos, Vice-Rector of Infrastructures and Environment, University Carlos III of Madrid, ES
The long run impact of MOOCs
Willem van Valkenburg, Vice-President, Open Education Consortium, and TU Delft, NL
According to Amara’s law we tend to overestimate the impact of a new technology in the short run, but we underestimate it in the long run. This seems to apply to MOOCs. In the beginning of MOOCs revolutions in education were predicted. The last year many columnists were disappointed about the impact of MOOCs after 5 years. But as any change in education, it is a change in the long run. In this presentation I will go into the effects of the MOOCs on TU Delft’s education and my predictions for the future.

SESIONES DE ARTÍCULOS

SESIÓN DE ARTÍCULOS D.1

Sala Fernando Pessoa
Presidente: António Quintas Mendes, Universidade Aberta – UAb, PT

Modelos innovadores de diseño de aprendizaje

MOOCs as a Disruptive Innovation to Develop Digital Competence Teaching: MicroMasters Program edX experience
Mónica De La Roca, Miguel Morales, Flor Sagastume, Rocael Hernández, Roberto Barchino (UGalileo, GT)
Nowadays, Digital Competence is essential for young persons and teachers. The importance of this competence strives in the fact that it provides new jobs opportunities and professional development around the world. Digital competence also gives the young ones the necessary tools to face an adult life, focusing on a permanent lifelong learning. If young people want to participate meaningfully in this new and changing society ruled by technology, they must develop digital competence to be part of a knowledge society and global economy. In this landscape, education system needs to assure that teachers have the necessary training to do a correct integration of technology in their teaching fields, teachers are responsible to guide students in their learning path to achieve this digital competence.
This paper contains an analysis of how MOOCs through a program like Micromasters Program, deployed in a platform as edX, have the potential to improve the delivery of education to develop digital skills. MicroMasters Programs are a series of graduate level courses from top universities designed to provide deep learning in a specific career field and are recognized by employers for their real job relevance. MicroMasters Program eLearning:
Crea Actividades y contenidos para la enseñanza virtual is a series of 4 courses, developed by Universidad Galileo, that faces the challenge to provide the basis for learning Digital Competence, it needs to address not only knowledge and skills, but also attitudes, social inclusion, dissemination of knowledge and their application to a real context. Another key element, to ensure the successful of the learning experience, is to encourage the construction of learning communities, in which an exchange of knowledge and information is possible and permanent. All MOOCs in this program were designed in a collaborative and pedagogical approach by designing practical units where participants can learn specific cloud based tools to design ICT-based learning activities, and how to incorporate them in different contexts.
MOOCs on Climate Change: Evaluation of two Massive Open Online Learning Experiences at Universidade Aberta, Portugal
António Teixeira, Paula Bacelar Nicolau, Sandra Caeiro, Vitor Rocio, José Coelho (UAb, PT)
Massive Open Online Course – MOOCs – have been around for a few years with a variety of pedagogical approaches and learning management systems. Still, several questions are raised by researchers and educators alike regarding their sustainability, both economically and as an efficient mode for education provision. In this paper we contribute to this discussion by presenting two massive, open, online, learning experiences on The Lived Experiences of Climate Change at Universidade Aberta, the Portuguese Distance Learning University: (i) the pilot course using the iMOOC pedagogical model and an the integrated platform Moodle/Elgg, developed at Universidade Aberta, and (ii) the course using the European Multiple MOOC Aggregator (EMMA) platform. We discuss the effort required to design and deliver the courses, the technological solution developed, and the results obtained. We registered a moderate effort to create and run the courses, and present their learning success and analytics and success. Lessons learned from this experience, impact in subsequent projects and future research on the field are also discussed.
Quality assurance of MOOCs and online programmes: special focus on e-assessment
Esther Huertas, Roger Roca (AQU Catalunya, ES)
Teaching and learning process offered through ICT has increased during the last years and it adopts different forms, as for example, fully online programmes, blended programmes or MOOCs. While the strategies for educating and training people are changing very rapidly, quality assurance agencies do not always move as quickly as it would be needed in monitoring the progress and development of e-learning. Nevertheless, Standards and Guidelines for Quality Assurance in the European Higher Education Area (ESG, 2015) presents an appropriate scenario for quality assurance of learning and teaching processes in online provision, including MOOCs.
Nowadays, it is accepted that ESG is fully applicable to any type of online provision and quality assurance agencies are working on agreeing the understanding of each standard. Nonetheless, quality assurance context is not mature enough and some questions arise when talking about trust and qualifications.
The TeSLA project pretends to assure and guarantee the quality of an e-assessment system using authentication and authorship instruments. The achievement of this aim will contribute to the enhancement of educational quality in the different forms of e-learning. Consequently, the proven achievement of intended learning outcomes will also increase the trust and reliability in these forms of education provision.
This paper presents a set of quality assurance standards focused on e-assessment that should be taken into account by online providers in order to contribute to the development of quality culture and building programme confidence. Special emphasis will be given to the most challenging standards (i.e. student support), based on preliminary results of the TeSLA project.

Knowledge transfer and pedagogical innovation through MOOC
Manuela Francisco (IPL, PT)
Developing scientific knowledge, training and innovating has been the main mission of higher education institutions. The last decades have been defined by a multitude of changes. Technology and cultural diversity changed our society. Attracting and retaining new audiences by finding new knowledge areas and paths has been a decisive step towards the future of learning. Online education has become the vehicle of excellence for globalization. This is even more prevalent with the MOOC phenomenon, whose “massive” and “open” facets came to effectively change the way we transfer knowledge, allowing a broader audience to be reached, without the hurdles of the “physical frontiers”. This was the spark that pushed the Polytechnic of Leiria in 2014 to begin developing MOOCs. Since then we’ve had a total of 19.000 registered users, spread across 80 different countries, most of them attending more than one of our 51 courses, according to our statistics from December 2017. In the past two years we have betted on society sensitization for inclusion, either in terms of multiculturalism or in terms of disability. This diversity allows us to Implement and test new pedagogical strategies and develop scientific research in the education and social fields.

SESIÓN DE ARTÍCULOS D.2

Sala Glicínia Quartin
Presidente: Lina Morgado, Universidade Aberta – UAb, PT

Nuevos abordajes educacionales con MOOCs y PEAs

MOOC Técnico: one and a half year of online courses
Ana Moura Santos (IST, UL, PT)
Starting from 2013, Técnico Lisboa of Universidade de Lisboa (tecnico.ulisboa.pt) has been aiming to position itself in the latest developments of Massive Open Online Courses (MOOC). In that same year, it defined a strategic plan that took into account both the Portuguese higher education context in the areas known as Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics (STEM) and also the education in STEM elsewhere in the world for Portuguese-speaking communities.
The first online courses were launched by the end of October 2016 in a proprietary platform MOOC Técnico (mooc.tecnico.ulisboa.pt) based on Open edX. Over a period of one year and a half, eight online courses were produced and run for the first time, and four of them even resulted in successfully reruns. Around 4150 participants enrolled in the MOOC Técnico online courses. Presently, five more courses are under production and are scheduled for launching in the next months.
The completion rates for the courses are very encouraging, ranging between 17% and 67% the percentage of participants who has received the free certificate for successfully concluding the course. In comparison with the usually average of 7.7% of completion rates among participants in edX courses (Chuang & Ho, 2017), the MOOC Técnico courses achieve a figure of success rate far above average.
We briefly present the results of MOOC Técnico project over the one year and a half of running STEM online courses. Namely, we describe the type of activities and pedagogic resources available in those courses, present main figures of flipped-classroom initiatives implemented with resource to MOOC contents, and exhibit general statistics on participants’ demographics and performance.

MOOC in Portuguese Public Administration
Ana Silva Dias (TecMinho, UM, PT)
The Project MOOC in Lisbon Metropolitan Area (AML), Massive Open Online Courses for citizens and public administrators (MOOC AML) was developed in 2016 aiming to raise awareness about massive open online education in public administration, explaining the importance of online education for city, territories and citizen’s growth.
MOOC AML designed a strategy for the development of Lisbon Metropolitan Area online education, gathering city council’s professionals, higher education and company experts in the common results.
The generation of ideas and the development of an innovative strategy for public administration was the main result of MOOC AML, put in a Guide for MOOC AML, that involved 20 experts from higher education and companies and 30 professional from 18 Municipalities in AML.
Together with the Company Cognitiva, an EdX demonstrator was developed, allowing experts (trainers and training department officers) to understand the value and the results that can be achieved with this kind of distance education.

How about increasing the student-student interaction in a MOOC to provide a more satisfying educational experience?
Pedro Barbosa Cabral (LE@D, UAb, PT), Willem van Valkenburg (TU Delft, NL)
In this study, we investigated if students are likely to achieve different levels of satisfaction depending on the interaction intensity (student-student, student-content, or student-teacher interaction) in a MOOC.
Four MOOC with different course designs were selected to be compared, two which had the course design mainly focused in the interaction student-content, and the other two which were focused in the student-content and student-student interactions. At the end of the MOOC students were asked to fill a survey where, among other questions, their satisfaction was evaluated.
The participants’ results showed significant differences in their perceived satisfaction in only one of the courses. The MOOC where we could find these differences had a course design based on student-content and student-student interactions. The perceived satisfaction in this course was lower when compared with the other three MOOC.
The factors which might influence satisfaction are quite broaden; the fact we have three MOOC with different course designs and the level of perceived satisfaction is similar, could lead us to conclude that trying to add more interaction inside a course does not lead to higher satisfaction. The MOOC where we found lower satisfaction, when compared with the others, might have characteristics which participants do not appreciate, despite the fact of having a course design where they have higher level of student-student interaction. More research is needed to understand if adding more intensity in the different types of interaction has an effect in MOOC participants’ perceived satisfaction.
Acknowledgements: The data from this research was ethically provided by the Delft University of Technology. I thank Sara Topolovec and Jan-Paul van Staalduinen, from the Delft University of Technology, for the support and insights in the development of the research methodology.

A Quality Framework for Open and Distance Higher Education
Magda Fonte, António Teixeira (UAb, PT)
The web-based technologies have been gaining great prominence in Higher Education (HE) context, fostering new forms of communication and interaction between teachers, students and institutions. The openness to the world is now a strategic option for Higher Education Institutions (HEI), arising from the need to go beyond borders to attract new audiences and to internationalise. Faced with this reality, HEI should increase focus on the development of Open and Distance Education (ODE), both formal and non-formal.
In Portugal there is no any regulatory and normative framework in the context of ODE in Higher Education, making it difficult for HEI to monitor the quality of ODE practices. Given this reality, HEI need an instrument in order to evaluate and monitor the quality of ODE courses, involving them actively in the development of a continuous improvement strategy. In this way, this paper describes the creation process of a quality framework, part of a PhD research on Education in the Open University of Portugal. It aims to explain the process of identification and analyses of 40 international quality models in the ODE area, in order to create the preliminary version of the framework with a set of 33 dimensions, 47 criteria and 125 indicators. It also focus on a Delphi Study that was carried out with a panel of experts in ODE, to validate the framework created previously. The results of the first Round of the Delphi Study are provided and some considerations for the next steps of the research are outlined.

SESIÓN DE ARTÍCULOS E.1

Sala Fernando Pessoa
Presidente: Teresa Cardoso, Universidade Aberta – UAb, PT

Tendencias emergentes en el diseño de MOOCs

Enriching the MOOC experience through the integration of various Technologies
Carlos Alario-Hoyos, Carlos Delgado Kloos, Iria Estévez-Ayres (UCM3, ES)
Learning experience when participating in a MOOC should not only be focused on watching videos, since this way the traditional (and not very effective) model of passive learning is replicated online. Interaction with the educational content offered in the MOOC is essential to empower the learner and make him/her responsible for his/her own learning (learning by doing has been shown more effective than passive learning). However, the types of tools available in MOOC platforms for learners to practice are often quite limited, and, in most cases, these tools are focused mainly on test-type exercises, through multiple choice tests or their variations for automatic correction exercises. To overcome this limitation and enrich the MOOC experience, other tools shall be integrated in MOOCs to enrich the learning experience, including tools to work and practice with MOOC-specific content, or tools to support learners in a more general way no matter the specific MOOC the learner is enrolled in. For example, a major problem with MOOCs is that the teacher cannot give personalized support to learners due to the massive number of participants. This opens new avenues of research on the development and integration of tools that make use of voice assistants to help the learner solve questions, or tools to help the learner develop his/her self-regulated learning skills. This paper presents a successful case of the integration of tools in three MOOCs on “Introduction to programming with Java,” offered in edX, as part of a “Professional Certificate” program. These tools include, for example, games and web environments to facilitate coding from scratch. The integration of these tools in the learning sequences of the MOOC can be more or less coupled, sometimes seamlessly integrated as any other built-in tool, or sometimes requiring learners to install new software.
The Adoption of Cloud-Based Tools in MOOCs – Advantages and Challenges
Christian Gütl, Amal Shehadeh (TU Graz, AT), Rocael Hernández, Héctor Amado, Miguel Morales (UGalileo, GT)
The generation NeXT grows up with modern technology, video games, computer as well as cloud services and social media. Consequently, they want to use their preferred tools and technologies in their daily life, also to support their learning activities. There is also a development towards massification in educational settings, and MOOCs are increasingly used in formal and informal learning activities. This paper sheds light on the adoption of cloud-based tools (CBT) in online learning and MOOC settings. More specifically, the aim is to how much and how effectively cloud-based tools are used in MOOCs during the last few years. Based on a literature survey and a survey with MOOCs creators and experts, the added values and advantages as well as the drawbacks and issues are discussed, and a categorization of available CBTs for online learning settings are introduced. Finally, best practices and recommendations for designing and using CBTs in MOOC settings concludes this research work.

The use of badges and its impact on the interaction dynamics of a MOOC
Inês Araújo, Carlos Santos e Luís Pedro (UA, PT)
Several research projects have been using gamified approaches as a way to develop media and information literacies in particular cohorts. Badges are one of the elements that is often used in these approaches and its importance and scope has been widely discussed in the realm of Educational Technology.
In the scope of the Gamilearning project, a gamification strategy was designed using the badges’ engine of the SAPO Campus platform in order to provide continuous training in this field to a set of teachers. The particular training action reported in this article was implemented via the “Badges: how to use?” MOOC. This MOOC took place a year ago and was structured to last 6 weeks. The first week was dedicated to onboarding and socializing activities, followed by 2 weeks in which the main concepts underlying the use of badges in educational contexts were presented and discussed. The 4th and 5th week was dedicated to the application of the aforementioned concepts by the trainees and the final week was a reflective week about the lessons learned.
Despite being the subject of the training action, badges were also used as an educational asset in the MOOC, both as a motivational and assessment tool.
In this article we claim that the use of badges as a motivational element can be more beneficial and have a greater educational impact than the mere use of these elements as a recognition and validation tool.
Data obtained shows that the interaction dynamics patterns were very significant between the trainees, especially in terms of posts, comments and endorsements. These results suggest that the use of badges as a motivational asset can contribute to a more sustained engagement of students throughout the duration of the training action and, hence, to a greater ratio of completion of MOOCs.
This article will present the data obtained in this MOOC and will promote a discussion about the affordances of the use of badges in educational contexts.

Building a Common Quality Reference Framework for Improving, Assessing and Comparing MOOC Design
Christian Stracke (OU, NL), António Teixeira, Maria do Carmo Pinto, João Paz (UAb, PT)
During the last years Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) became very popular, leading to an increasing debate about their quality as an education tool. To address the quality issues involved, the Massive Online Open Education Quality (MOOQ) project was initiated as the European Alliance for the Quality of MOOCs.
The project’s mission is to develop a quality reference framework for the adoption, the design, the delivery and the evaluation of MOOCs in order to empower MOOC providers for the benefit of the learners. An output of the MOOQ project was a global survey on existing practices and design patterns. The development of the survey started with the establishment of a quality reference matrix comprising the basic categories of a typical MOOC design process. The research used as reference the process model of EN ISO/IEC 19796-1. The MOOQ quality reference process model consists therefore of three pillars which represent the main aspects involved in the production and delivery of MOOCs, each subdivided in 34 dimensions and respective descriptors.
A total of 267 questionnaires were fully completed. An additional 36 semi-structured interviews with MOOC designers, facilitators and providers has been also carried out, allowing for complementarily of target groups addressed by each tool. In this paper, the authors describe the research framework and the development process of the first global survey on MOOC design and explain how its results will inform a future common quality reference framework for improving, assessing and comparing MOOCs, which will itself lead to the development of a proposal for an international standard for MOOC design and delivery.

SESIÓN DE ARTÍCULOS E.2

Sala Glicínia Quartin
Presidente: Ana Dias, TecMinho, UM, PT

Compartir experiencias I

A emergência dos MOOC no contexto socioeconómico do ensino superior português
Irene Tomé (UNL, PT)
A comunicação tem como objetivo descrever dois pressupostos sobre os cursos massivos abertos em linha – MOOCs: uma perspetiva visível/ micro e outra invisível/macro.
As instituições de ensino ou de formação, quer públicas ou privadas, ao implementarem estratégias de desenvolvimento de modelos de cursos recorrendo aos sistemas de informação e comunicação digitais devem possuir conhecimentos e competências sobre esses novos modelos.
Desde que em 2011 P. Norvig e S. Thrun lançaram um MOOC sobre inteligência artificial e obtiveram, à escala global, um total de 160.000 alunos inscritos, toda a comunidade, principalmente a educativa, aderiu. A ritmos diferentes disponibilizaram pelo menos um MOOC, de acordo com a política universitária ou então através da criatividade, inovação, competências na organização de saberes digitais dos seus docentes. Nesta perspetiva, visível/ micro, os cursos bem conceptualizados e desenvolvidos deram visibilidade e prestígio às instituições, tornando-se numa força de marketing ao captaram alunos oriundos das diversas partes do globo.
Se o primeiro plano, visível/micro, assenta numa perspetiva pedagógico- didática de comunicação digital, o segundo plano, invisível/macro, diz respeito às questões que se prendem com os conceitos de: grandes bases de dados reunidas com as respostas dos docentes – bigdata -, pilotada por algoritmos de inteligência artificial que caracterizam os modos como as pessoas aprendem (machine learning; deep learning).
O foco desta reflexão assenta nestas duas perspetivas, principalmente no sentido de em conjunto tentar clarificar os objetivos de cada uma das partes: conjunto massivo pedagógico-didático e conjunto massivo de dados.

El papel del profesor y la tutoría en MOOC: experiencia de Universidad Panamericana
Alejandra Meléndez, Mariela Román, Rossana Pinillos (UPANA, GT)
Los MOOCs han transformado los procesos de enseñanza-aprendizaje en la educación desde su disrupción en el 2012, lo que también ha significado un cambio en la figura del profesor y el proceso de la tutoría.
El papel del profesor en los MOOC es el de un especialista, que desarrolla contenidos, documentos y actividades, pero además de estas funciones debe experimentar nuevos desafíos como, la elaboración de lecciones en video. Diseñar contenidos para un MOOC, es un trabajo extenso y complejo que requiere la elaboración de guiones, disponibilidad para realizar las grabaciones y sobre todo la preparación del profesor para desenvolverse frente a una cámara.
En los MOOC existe un elevado número de estudiantes, por lo que la interacción entre el profesor y el estudiantes es muy poca o nula, es aquí donde juega un papel importante la figura de un tutor o facilitador. Dentro de las funciones del tutor está el envío de correos con información relacionada a los contenidos y aspectos importantes del curso, resolución de dudas respecto a cuestiones técnicas, así como las dudas específicas del contenido.
En el artículo se aborda el papel que debe desempeñar el profesor a partir de las reflexiones y la experiencia de Universidad Panamericana con su primer MOOC “Cómo Estructurar y Redactar un Informe Académico”, asimismo se plantean las técnicas utilizadas como mejores prácticas para la tutoría y retención de estudiantes, tomando en cuenta casos de éxito como: el seguimiento y la atención que se proporcionó a un grupo de participantes que pertenecen a la Policía Nacional Civil de Guatemala (PNC).

MOOC Competências Digitais para Professores: representações dos participantes
António Teixeira, Isolina Oliveira, Maria do Carmo Teixeira Pinto, Branca Miranda (UAb, PT)
A Universidade Aberta Portuguesa (UAb) tem estado envolvida em diversos projetos que procuram estudar os modelos de ensino e aprendizagem subjacentes aos MOOCs e alargar a sua disseminação no espaço europeu e para além dele. Uma equipa de investigadores da UAb desenvolveu um modelo pedagógico para cursos online abertos que tem vindo a ser testado e aprofundado visando contribuir para a consolidação deste campo de investigação. Neste contexto, foi desenvolvido o MOOC Competências Digitais para Professores, no âmbito do projeto europeu Elearning, Communication and Open-data: Massive Mobile, Ubiquitous an Open Learning (ECO), que teve várias edições. Este MOOC tem por base um modelo pedagógico inovador, designado por sMOOC, que procura melhorar a qualidade da experiência de aprendizagem mediante a valorização da componente social de apoio aos participantes, bem como a possibilidade de acesso a partir de múltiplas plataformas de aprendizagem e dispositivos móveis.
Os participantes no MOOC Competências Digitais para Professores são maioritariamente professores e formadores e a quase totalidade acedeu ao curso a partir de espaços geográficos de língua oficial portuguesa (Portugal, Brasil e África).
Nesta comunicação são apresentados os resultados dos questionários aplicados aos participantes sobre as suas representações acerca do curso (conteúdos, métodos, avaliação, entre outros). A análise dos resultados aponta para que um número muito significativo dos participantes considerou os conteúdos fornecidos interessantes, atualizados e em estreita relação com o tema do curso, assim como avaliou de forma muito positiva a metodologia de aprendizagem e sublinhou o facto de a experiência que o curso lhe proporcionou ter aplicação prática na sua vida profissional. Os participantes concluíram que o curso tinha correspondido às suas expectativas iniciais e consideraram a experiência de aprendizagem extremamente positiva, demonstrando interesse em vir a inscrever-se em outros MOOCs.

1-day MOOC – Exploração de um modelo de formação para professores
Carlos Santos, Fernando Ramos (DigiMedia, UA, PT)
No âmbito da unidade curricular Tecnologias da Comunicação em Educação, da edição 2017-2018 do Programa Doutoral em Multimédia em Educação, foi realizada uma experiência pedagógica que teve como objetivo a conceção, planeamento e lecionação de um MOOC, num modelo de funcionamento de um dia. Esta experiência foi realizada num curto período de tempo, aproximadamente 4 semanas, e teve como objetivo, para além da promoção da investigação e reflexão sobre as temáticas da unidade curricular, incentivar a experimentação de um modelo pouco comum para a realização de um MOOC, que, em hipótese, poderia ajudar a minimizar uma das principais dificuldades existentes neste tipo de cursos: uma taxa de conclusão significativamente inferior à de ações de formação que seguem outros modelos pedagógicos, presenciais ou a distância.
No caso dos professores, e outros profissionais com uma carreira exigente, mesmo com uma elevada motivação para o tema de um MOOC, é comum existir uma grande dificuldade para manter a atenção e acompanhar as atividades que decorrem ao longo de, habitualmente, várias semanas. Essas dificuldades são acrescidas em momentos específicos do ano letivo como, por exemplo, as semanas de reuniões escolares ou de avaliações.
Com esta experiência procurou-se perceber qual a recetividade, os resultados de aprendizagem e, principalmente, a taxa de conclusão para um MOOC, realizado num modelo concentrado num dia, especificamente desenhado para professores portugueses.
O tema escolhido foi o dos Dispositivos Móveis no processo de ensino-aprendizagem, tendo sido estruturado em quatro módulos, cada um da responsabilidade de um grupo de alunos da unidade curricular.
Nesta comunicação apresentamos uma descrição geral desta experiência exploratória de aplicação do modelo 1-day MOOC, incluindo os objetivos, as estratégias e os principais resultados obtidos.

SESIÓN DE ARTÍCULOS F.2

Sala Glicínia Quartin
Presidente: Irene Tomé, NOVA University of Lisbon – UNL, PT

Compartir experiencias II

Efectos del uso de un pretest y postest en un curso en línea privado y masivo con reconocimiento académico
Mario Solarte (UniCauca, CO)
Desde el primer periodo académico de 2016 la Universidad del Cauca (Popayán, Colombia) comenzó el ofrecimiento de cursos en línea con reconocimiento académico a través de una instancia local de Open edX. Aprovechando las características de dicha plataforma se diseñó el curso “Astronomía cotidiana” habilitado para 400 estudiantes de todos los programas profesionales de la institución. Teniendo en cuenta que el equipo docente a cargo del curso está compuesto por un profesor y un asistente, dicho curso puede catalogarse como un MPOC (Massive Private Online Course). El diseño del curso se encuentra condicionado por la capacidad del equipo docente para orientar el curso, motivar la participación y el desarrollo de actividades de una cantidad relativamente alta de estudiantes. Existe un riesgo que esos condicionantes bajen la calidad del curso o del aprendizaje de los estudiantes. Esta ponencia expone los resultados de la aplicación de pretest y postest en el curso en línea Astronomía cotidiana para verificar los resultados de aprendizaje de los estudiantes y la sistematización de una encuesta sobre la calidad percibida por ellos.
Experiencia de construcción de MOOCs: “Desarrollo de habilidades blandas como preparación para la vida laboral”
Teresa Luna Ramírez, John Fredy Mira Mejía (UCN, CO)
Los Massive Open Online Courses (MOOC) se han considerado una revolución educativa por su potencialidad ya que fomentan el aprendizaje asincrónico y atemporal convirtiéndose en un recurso alternativo para aprender en dinámicas educativas y pedagógicas que no han sido cubiertas por los medios tradicionales. Teniendo clara su importancia, esta propuesta examina la experiencia de construcción de MOOCs de la Fundación Universitaria Católica del Norte, tomando como caso de estudio el MOOC en Desarrollo de habilidades blandas como preparación para la vida laboral. Entre los resultados se observa la importancia de contar con un centro de producción multimedial y la identificación de actividades alternas de formación que permitan una continua interacción entre los participantes y un fortalecimiento de las capacidades adquiridas a través de material de apoyo.
Massive Open Online Courses (MOOC) to improvement teacher professional development
Bruno Gonçalves, António Osório (UM, PT)
In a context of continuous change in education, different challenges often emerge for educational institutions and for those involved in the teaching-learning process. One of the particular challenges, is the need for teachers to acquire skills in the field of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) for the improvement of the quality of teaching and learning. Although the integration of ICT in education is currently on the agenda of educational institutions, it may be hard to understand the technological progress and the networked society based on existing learning theories. As a kind of answer to this need, connectivism emerged. Connectivism deals with knowledge as something distributed in a network of connections.
Considering Massive Open Online Courses (MOOC) as an expression of connectivism, this research attempts to study MOOC as a way to understand the process of professional development of teachers in a connectivist environment. This research adopted Technological Pedagogical and Content Knowledge (TPACK) as a theoretical referential to examine in detail the process of professional development of teachers in a MOOC context.
Through an in-depth study of this process, it was intended to identify innovations to be introduced into the operation of MOOC in view of improved professional development of teachers. The results of this research reveal that the process of professional development of teachers in MOOC is quite complex and determined by a variety of identified dimensions.

Engagement in portuguese Social MOOCs: emotions and social presence through Microbloguing
Maria Ramalheiro, Lina Morgado (UAb, PT)
There is currently a wide variety of modalities and communication tools and online publishing, which builts and feeds what has been called, among other terms, the social web. However, many of these forms of communication require a considerable investment of time and attention, both in terms of preparation and production of what is published and shared, as well as about the interaction (reading, scanning display) with what is shared by others users.
Twitter launched a new way of publishing and communicating online through short messages (140 characters), now known as microblogging. Since then, other short forms to publish and share content have appeared, such as Pinterest, Vine (6 seconds) videos or Tumblr.
The advantage provides by these tools or service derives from, on the one hand, the relatively low investment of time and effort in terms of production and publishing, and, on the other hand, from the the good integration in mobile platforms (smartphones and tablets).
In terms of learning, these ways of interacting potentiate the content creation, contribute to the development of a PLE (Personal Learning environment) and, as a communication tool, to enhance the social presence.
Many studies have shown the importance of social presence to increase effective learning. This paper aims to present a case study regarding the use of Microblogging as a booster of social presence and interaction in a Massive Open Online Course (MOOC).
Within the model and pedagogical approach to the implementation of a MOOC, the use of microblogging played an important role. During the week of familiarization, a microblogging tool was used as a communication tool between the facilitators and participants, and the participants themselves, making room for socializing and growth of a learning community.